外墙保温材料技术知识

外墙保温材料种类很多,我们应该怎么选择呢

  保温材料依据材性来分类,大体分为有机材料、无机材料和复合材料。不同的保温材料性能各异,价格也千差万别,本策划按照材料的保温性能,即导热系数的大小依次排列,并就产品的组成、材性指标、应用价值及相关厂家等进行对比。

  Thermalinsulationmaterialsareclassifiedaccordingtothepropertiesofmaterials,whichcanbedividedintoorganicmaterials,inorganicmaterialsandcompositematerials.Differentinsulationmaterials,theperformanceofdifferent,pricesvarywidely,theplanninginaccordancewiththematerialofthethermalinsulationperformance,namelythesizeofthecoefficientofthermalconductivityaresequentiallyarranged,andproductcomposition,materialindex,applicationvalueandrelatedmanufacturers,suchascomparison.

  1.真空绝热板

  1vacuuminsulationboard

  导热系数傲视群雄

  ThermalconductivityofWarlords

  该板材由无机纤维芯材与高阻气复合薄膜通过抽真空封装技术,外覆专用界面砂浆,制成的一种高效保温板材。

  Theplateiscomposedofaninorganicfibercorematerialandahighresistancegascompositefilmthroughavacuumpackagingtechnology.

  空气的导热系数大约是0.023W(m2K),真空绝热板的导热系数绝对是现有保温材料中最低的,其最大的优势,也就是其保温性能可以傲视所有其他类型的保温材料。但是,真空度难以保持,若是发生破损,真空绝热板的保温性能即会骤降;其次,现有施工工艺导致板缝太多,热桥太多,引发结露的风险很大;再者,施工平整度也较难以控制,薄抹灰系统脱落的风险也较大;当前,该产品的造价相对较高,性价比的优势不大。如果该产品造价进一步降低,倒是可以考虑应用在阳台板面防止冷桥使用。模拟成果显示,在阳台板面铺设500mm宽的真空绝热板就能起到隔绝热桥的作用,那么阳台板面就不需要大面积的铺满厚达3厘米的挤塑板了。

  Thethermalconductivityofairisabout0.023W(m2k).Thethermalconductivityofthevacuuminsulatedpanelisabsolutelyexistingthermalinsulationmaterialinthelowest,itsbiggestadvantageisitsthermalinsulationperformancecanshowdisdainforallothertypesofinsulationmaterial.Butvacuumdegreeisdifficulttomaintain,ifdamaged,vacuuminsulationpanelinsulationperformancewillsag;secondly,presentconstructiontechnologyleadtoseamtoomuch,toomuchheatbridge,causingtheriskofcondensation.Furthermore,constructionsmoothnessisalsomoredifficulttocontrol,thinplasteringsystemfalloffandtheriskisbiggeralso.Atpresent,theproductcostisrelativelyhigh,priceoflittleadvantage.Iftheproductcostisfurtherreduced,butcanbeappliedinthebalconyboardtopreventthecoldbridge.Simulationresultsshowthatinthebalconyboardlaying500mmwidevacuuminsulationpanelswillbeabletoplayaroleintheisolatedbridge,thenbalconyboardneednotlargeareacoveredwiththicknessof3cmplasticextrudedboard.

  2.气凝胶绝热板

  2gasgelinsulationboard

  兼备保温防火性能

  Thermalinsulationandfireresistanceperformance

  气凝胶材料被称为世界上最轻的固体,气凝胶绝热板以纳米二氧化硅气凝胶为主体材料,通过特殊的工艺复合而成。

  Theairgelmaterialisknownasthelightestsolidintheworld,andtheair-gelthermalinsulationboardisthemainmaterialwiththenanometersilicagelasthemainmaterial.

  气凝胶绝热板具有耐高温、导热系数低、密度小、强度高、绿色环保、防水不燃等优越性能,同时兼具优越的隔声减震性能,是冶金、化工、国防、航空航天等领域不可或缺的高效隔热保温材料。这种产品集保温性能、防火性能于一体,是很难得的材料,但是即便是在欧洲,这种材料也没有大面积的应用于建筑工程领域。一方面这种产品的造价实在太贵,另一方面,对于承受冷热循环的外保温系统主要成分,该产品还需要经受更多的考验,目前国内还没有工程案例证明其用于外墙外保温的可靠性。按照我国的国情,气凝胶材料在很长一段时间内还将是处于实验室的产品,运用于工程外保温领域似乎还不可能。

  Aerogelheatinsulationplatewithhightemperatureresistance,lowthermalconductivity,lowdensity,highstrength,greenenvironmentalprotection,waterproof,fireproof,superiorperformance,whilebothsuperiorsoundinsulationandshockabsorption,isanindispensablepartinthefieldofmetallurgy,chemicalindustry,nationaldefense,aerospaceandotherhighefficientthermalinsulationmaterial.Thisproductsetinsulationperformance,fireperformanceinone,isararematerial,buteveninEurope,thismaterialdoesnothavealargeareaofapplicationinthefieldofconstruction.Ontheonehand,thecostoftheproductsaretooexpensive,ontheotherhand,subjectedtothermocyclinginsulationsystemmaincomponent,theproductsalsoneedtoenduremore.Currently,therearenoprojectcasetodemonstratetheiruseforexteriorinsulationreliability.InaccordancewithChina'snationalconditions,thegasgelmaterialinalongtimewillbeinthelaboratoryproducts,theuseoftheprojectoutsidetheinsulationfieldseemsimpossible.

  3.发泡聚氨酯板

  3foamedpolyurethaneboard

  最大程度防止热桥作用

  Themaximumextenttopreventthethermalbridgeeffect

  发泡聚氨酯是以异氰酸酷、多元醇为主要原料加入添加剂组成双组分,经喷涂施工而成,具有绝热和防水功能。

  Foamingpolyurethaneisatwocomponentwithdifferentisocyanateandpolyolasthemainrawmaterial,whichisformedbyspraying,andhasthefunctionsofheatinsulationandwaterproof.

  聚氨酯保温材料是单一有机保温材料中性能最好的。按照工艺分为现场发泡聚氨酯和工厂预制的硬泡聚氨酯板,现场发泡聚氨酯性能更为优良。由现场发泡聚氨酯制成的绝热板材具有非常好的整体性和防水性,因此非常适合用于屋面保温和防水、地下室墙体覆土内的保温防水,以及应用于干挂幕墙内的保温。且该材料施工操作方便,可以最大程度地防止热桥作用。而硬泡聚氨酯保温板板是衍生出来的产品,由于尺寸稳定性较差,相对膨胀聚苯板并没有太大的差异。根据部分厂家提供的双面涂抹砂浆的复合聚氨酯A级板材和检测报告显示,硬发泡聚氨酯板在一段时间内可以勉强过关,作为防火保温材料使用,但新防火检验标准出台之后,该类材料将不被认可。

  Polyurethanethermalinsulationmaterialisoneofthebestperformanceoforganicthermalinsulationmaterials.Accordingtotheprocessisdividedintothefieldfoamingpolyurethaneandfactoryprefabricatedrigidpolyurethanefoamboard,thefieldfoamedpolyurethaneperformanceisbetter.Madeofpolyurethanefoamthermalinsulationplatehasaverygoodoverallandwaterproof,soitisverysuitableforroofinsulationandwaterproof,basementwallsarecoveredinthesoilofinsulationandwaterproof,andapplicationtodryhangingwallheatpreservation.Theconstructionmaterialsandconvenientoperation,canpreventthermalbridgeeffect.Thehardfoampolyurethaneinsulationboardisderivedfromtheproduct,duetopoordimensionalstability,therelativeexpansionofpolystyreneboardisnotmuchdifference.AccordingtothepartofthemanufacturerstoprovidedoubledaubmortarcompositepolyurethaneA-gradeplateandtestreportshowsthathardfoamingpolyurethaneboardwithinaperiodoftimecanbarelypass,asfireinsulationmaterialsused,butnewfireinspectionstandardsaftertheintroduction,thiskindofmaterialwillnotberecognized.

  4.挤塑聚苯板

  4extrudedpolystyreneboard

  内室保温最佳选择

  Thebestchoiceforinnerinsulation

  该板材以聚苯乙烯树脂或其共聚物为成分,添加少量添加剂,通过加热挤塑成型而制得的具有闭孔结构的硬质泡沫塑料制品。

  Thesheetwithpolystyreneresinoritscopolymerasaningredient,addingasmallamountofadditives,manufacturedbyheatingextrusionmoldingwiththeobturatorstructureofhardfoamproducts.

  挤塑聚苯板也是集防水和保温作用于一体的材料,刚度大,抗压性能好,导热系数低,用于屋面、地面、地下室墙体覆土内的内室保温是非常合适的。但是这种板材透汽性差,尺寸稳定性差,与无机粘结砂浆相比,可粘结性也较差,用于外墙体保温中常见系统脱落、饰面开裂等质量事故,由于其造价并不便宜,该材料在外保温应用领域并不及膨胀聚苯板优势大。不推荐用于外墙体保温系统中。

  Extrudedpolystyreneboardisasetofwaterproofandheatpreservationeffectonvariousmaterials,stiffness,goodcompressionresistance,coefficientofthermalconductivitylowroof,floor,basementwallcoveringsoilwithintheinnerinsulationisverysuitablefor.Butthissheetthroughsteampoor,poordimensionalstability,comparedwithinorganicadhesivemortar,bondingisalsopoor,forthermalinsulationofexternalwallincommonsystemoff,veneercrackingqualityaccident,becausethecostisnotcheap,thematerialinthermalinsulationapplicationsandlessexpansionpolyphenylboardadvantage.Notrecommendedforexteriorwallthermalinsulationsystem.

  5.酚醛保温板

  5phenolicinsulationboard

  日式建筑偏爱酚醛板

  Japanesestylebuilding

  酚醛板是由苯酚和甲醛的缩聚物与其他添加剂如固化剂、发泡剂、表面活性剂和填充剂等混合制成的多孔型酚醛泡沫板。

  Phenolicplateismadeofphenolandformaldehydepolycondensateandotheradditivessuchascuringagent,foamingagent,surfaceactiveagentandfillermadefromamixtureofporousphenolicfoamboard.

  国外生产的酚醛板具有较好的保温性能,其导热系数比挤塑聚苯板低,日本国家的夹芯保温体系大量采用酚醛板。昊瑞公司看到国内目前推广力度小,生产技术也较为落后,其保温性能略差于国外产品的市场机遇,引进国外先进的生产设备和技术经验,经过自主研发生产,形成了集研发、生产、销售、施工为一体的新型保温建材企业此外,针对国内生产的酚醛板存

  Foreignproductionofphenolicplatehasbetterthermalinsulationperformance,thecoefficientofthermalconductivityislowerthanthatofextrudedpolystyreneboard,Japanesenationalsandwichinsulationsystemusingalargenumberofphenolicboard.HaoRuicompanyseedomesticeffortstopromotesmall,productiontechnologyisrelativelybackward,itsthermalinsulationperformanceisslightlyworsethanthemarketopportunitiesofforeignproducts,theintroductionofforeignadvancedproductionequipmentandtechnologyexperience,throughindependentresearchanddevelopmentproduction,formingasetresearchanddevelopment,production,salesandconstructionasoneofthenewthermalinsulationbuildingmaterialsenterprisesinaddition,inviewofthedomesticproductionofphenolicboarddeposit


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  本文标题:外墙保温材料种类很多,我们应该怎么选择呢


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